Volunteering is recognized as a path to social inclusion, especially for minority populations or people otherwise on the fringes of communities. The resources here discuss various types of inclusion (or how to overcome exclusion).  The topic is closely tied to the Diversity resources elsewhere in this library..

BoardSource 2017 Finds a New Platform for Action in the Face of Declining Diversity, Ruth McCambridge and Cyndi Suarez, Nonprofit Quarterly, 2017

Review of the BoardSource 2017 survey.

Challenges in the Contemporary Volunteering Environment, Jeni Warburton, pp. 27-29, Volunteering SA&NT, 2013
Cultural Awareness, Ruth Wilson, p. 37, The National Centre for Volunteering (England), 2003
The Difference Between Feedback and Power, Sean Thomas-Breitfeld, Building Movement Project blog, 2016
DIVERSITY: Different Perspectives on the Same Topic, Sue Vineyard, Megatrends & Volunteerism, pp. 121-123, Heritage Arts Publishing, 1993
Economic Development, Internet Technology, and Volunteers, Susan J. Ellis, Energize Hot Topic, 2004
In the Exclusion Zone, Filiz Niyazi, pp. 3-4, The National Centre for Volunteering (England), 1996
The Need for Diversity – a ‘Whole-of-Volunteering’ Approach, Joy Noble, Louise Rogers, and Andy Fryar, Volunteering SA Inc, 2003
Whom Don’t We Ask to Volunteer?, Susan J. Ellis, Energize Hot Topic, 2014
Why Young People Should Be Decision Makers, Jenny Sazama and Karen S. Young, pp. 4-6, Youth on Board, 2001

From the  Alliance for Nonprofit Management (The Alliance) and the Building Movement Project (BMP). Offers information, tools, case studies and other resources to develop core competencies on constituent and community engagement -- to facilitate efforts to integrate the voice of community members and constituents into the daily practice of nonprofit organizations.

, 2015, pp. 32
Report from Temple University's Center for Intergenerational Learning on a study to gain a better understanding of why and how older immigrants contribute to their families and communities and to identify promising practices that support the engagement of immigrant elders in meaningful roles. , 2008, pp. 64
A comprehensive online guide about volunteering and community participation for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people, from Beyond Barriers in Scotland.

Produced by the National Centre for Volunteering (UK), this booklet examines how developing the right policies leads to a more diverse volunteer corps.

, 2002, pp. 20

Extensive report -- identifying many resources -- by Jayne Cravens for the  ICT4EMPL Future Work project at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre.

, 2014, pp. 84

Report from BoardSource  on its survey of more than 1700 board chairs and executives of nonprofit organizations sharing data and insights about their boards’ composition, practices, performance, and culture. Of special interest for its data on lack of diversity. See a review of the study published in Nonprofit Quarterly on 9/6/17.

, 2017, pp. 64
Office for the Community and Voluntary Sector, New Zealand , 2007, pp. 60
From the New Zealand Office for the Community and Voluntary Sector , 2008, pp. 61
By Beverly Hobbs, 4-H Youth Specialist, Oregon State University.

By  Mai Moua, Ph.D. for the Minnesota Association for Volunteer Administration (MAVA). Results of a 3-year study of the attitudes of immigrants (especially  the Hmong, Latino, and Somali communities of Minnesota) about volunteering and those of organizations about recruiting these populations. 

, 2010, pp. 40

Booklet from Refugee Action in the UK outlining the rules for encouraging immigrants to volunteer while awaiting their residency status.

, 2013, pp. 7
Over a dozen practical, free manuals to support (international) inclusion projects for socially excluded young people, from SALTO-YOUTH (Support, Advanced Learning and Training Opportunities within the European YOUTH programme). , 2010

By Nora L. Silver, based on work done by The Volunteerism Project on volunteering by diverse ethnic/cultural groups. Seven focus groups provided the basis for the book:

  • A Chorus of Voices, African American focus group facilitated by Vicki Clark in Memphis, Tennessee
  • Self-Determination: Messages for Our Native Youth, two American Indian focus groups conducted by Kouslaa Kessler-Mata in Oakland and San Francisco, California
  • Uno Recibe lo que Uno Da: You Get What You Give, Central American focus group conducted in Spanish, facilitated by Coco Mendoza and translated by Gary Wheelock in San Francisco, California
  • Extending the Family, Chinese American focus group conducted by Mae Chao in San Francisco, California
  • Giving Generously, Japanese American focus group conducted by Mami Ishikawa in Berkeley, California
  • Three Continents, Four States, Ten Cities, Korean American focus group facilitated by Debbie Ng in Oakland, California
  • La Gran Familia, Mexican American focus group facilitated by Ramon del Castillo, with simultaneous translation by Patsy Roybal in Denver, Colorado
, 2011, pp. 131

By Natasha Menon, Amanda Moore and Michael Sherraden, published by Center for Social Development/Global Service Institute.

, 2002, pp. 15
by Renaissance London, report of a 3-year project at the largest archaeological archive in Europe designed to test volunteering as a form of social inclusion by recruiting volunteers from diverse backgrounds , 2010, pp. 18

Informative report about the innovations of TimeBank in the UK to update volunteering. Discusses "legacy" volunteering desired from the London Olympics and the "Mind the Gap" project aimed at recruiting young people of different minorities.

, 2005, pp. 28
"Advancing the Community Together" (ACT) Partnership

Site outlining the "Partnership between the Volunteer Sector and the South Australian Government," through that state's Office for Volunteers.

African-American Philanthropy: A Bibliography and Resource List

Excellent resources compiled by the Foundation Center.

Community Development Policy (New Zealand)

NZ government site offering policy statements, reports,and other materials on volunteering as well as other community development,  including a study of Maori volunteering.

Diversity Links

The Minnesota Council on Foundations has compiled links to Web sites and resources for philanthropy by diverse communities and cultures, including African-Americans, American Indians, Asian/Pacific Island Americans, Latino/Hispanic Americans,Lesbians & Gays, the Disability Community, and others.

Diversity Trends free articles

Trainer/consultant Tracy Brown (often speaks at volunteering conferences) offers practical information for dealing with diversity, as well as a free weekly e-mail *diversity toolkit tune up.*

MEM-VOL Migrant and Ethnic Minority Volunteering

Reports from a trans-Europe research project from 2002-2006.

SALTO Training Toolbox

Large number of group training exercises on all aspects of diversity and youth action from Support, Advanced Learning and Training Opportunities within the European YOUTH programme.

"Skip a Generation"
Submitted by Susan J. Ellis, Energize, Inc.

A common problem of long-time volunteer associations, particularly auxiliaries, friends groups, and other membership-type support organizations, is that members have "aged in place." Though they may have started their volunteer careers in middle age, after long service members are now well into their senior years. Once a group has become primarily older (or, for that matter, focused on any one age group rather than spanning many ages), it is very difficult to simply recruit younger members
naturally. This is because over time the organization has adapted to the needs and interests of the majority of its members. Everything from the time and place of meetings, the projects and activities selected, even the way meetings are run, please the bulk of the members but may not attract anyone different.

If there is a sincere desire to diversify the membership, something dramatic must counteract the inertia of "we're used to doing things this way." One idea is to develop a project that consciously skips a generation. Rather than trying to recruit 40-somethings into a group of people over 65, try for 20-somethings. Consciously reach out to those whose attitude about seniors is not fraught with hang-ups over fear of aging, parental relationships, or other obstacles. If members have grandchildren close by, what a wonderful way to help them learn more about
each other. For members without grandchildren or geographically distant from relatives, encourage recruiting any young adults they know (neighbors, congregation members, grandchildren of close friends). Or, find a college sorority/fraternity, corporation with a large number of young employees, or other group interested in a collaboration.

Do not make the young adults "join" your group - at least not right away! First concentrate on a project you can all do together. By recruiting a lot of younger volunteers all at once, you form a bond among them as well as with your veteran members. Allow the new recruits to plan the way they would like to be involved. Enjoy the project itself. When it ends, hold a big meeting to discuss how it went and if there is interest in continuing to work together. Let loyalty to your organization build naturally.

Wonder what your "intergenerational" project might be? Here is a starter list of ideas:

  • Create an oral history to give to your library or local historical
    society. The younger recruits formulate questions and video or audiotape the interviews; the senior members do the talking.
  • Demystify aging for kids. The younger recruits match up with the senior
    members around mutual interests (tennis, movie going, bridge playing, walking, etc.) and together give presentations to elementary school classes and youth groups, showing how it's possible to maintain interests for one's
    whole life, even if the level of activity changes.
  • Hold a fundraising "cross dressing" fashion show. Raid the closets of the older members for clothes from years past. While the younger recruits model the memories, have some game seniors show off today's coolest outfits.

Have fun with this! And you might even attract some of the middle generation, too.

"They will never forget how you make them feel"
Submitted by Sue Staggs, Organization: CAPP/Tomorrow's Leaders Today , Texas, USA

"People will forget what you say, they will forget what you do, but they never will forget how you make them feel." 
-- Maya Angelou

If we remember this thought, we will treat one another better. Many people speak all the right words, but their body language, their mannerisms, the way they choose to shake our hands, or not, all work together to make us feel valued or discarded.

Ms. Angelou's words are true in dealing with any age group, any ethnicity, men, women, boys, girls, and any cultural background. In a world of terrorists, war, and even genocide, we have to learn to live on this globe in harmony.

Join me in working every day to make every single person we meet feel good about that meeting. 

Law Enforcement Settings

Supervision Involves Trust
Submitted by Barbara Lightheart, Travis County Jail , Texas, USA

Supervision involves trust. About a quarter of the 380 volunteers here are Twelve-Step volunteers, who lead AA, Narcotics Anonymous and Cocaine Anonymous meetings to supplement our in-house drug and alcohol treatment program. We know these Twelve-Step programs are vitally important to our inmates so we do what to some volunteer coordinators and direct supervisors may seem very unorthodox: we let these volunteers replenish their own numbers by recruiting others. I do not recruit, interview or screen them because we understand the anonymous nature of their work and we trust these volunteers to do their work effectively and successfully. They do.